Fish farming, or aquaculture, refers to the breeding, raising, and harvesting of animals and plants in a water environment. These farms can be land-based or ocean-based. Ocean-based fish farming is sometimes called mariculture. Aquaculture encompasses the production of food fish, bait fish, sport fish, ornamental or pet fish, shellfish, mollusks, algae, sea vegetables, and fish eggs.

In addition to providing food security through aquaculture, “farmed” fish and shellfish are sometimes used in a practice called stock restoration or enhancement. In this practice, the farmed fish are released into the wild in an attempt to rebuild the wild population or habitat.